LOCATION AND BRIEF HISTORY
Northern most edge of Pothwar between Northern latitudes
33 .36 - 33. 49 and longitudes 72 . 50 - 73.24 east
of Greenwich Area
Total Area 906.50 SQ.KM
Islamabad Proper 220.15
Islamabad Park 220.15 SQ.KM
Islamabad Rural Area 466.20
Specified Area 3626.00
Max; Average Min; Average
Winter (Oct - March) 16.7
C 3.4 C
Summer ( Apr-Sept) 34.2
C 24.4 C
Annual 28.9 C 14.4 C
Average Rainfall 1143 milimetres
Population Present 1999:
5,24,500 - 1994: 3,40,286 - 1978: 1,65,000 - 1972: 76,641
Islamabad is located in the lap of crescent shaped Margalla
hills, correctly recorded as ' Mar-I-Qila' which in
Persian means " The hill fort of the serpent "
Centuries ago this region was ruled over by Takkas who
were Turanians by race and decedents of Zohak, the Iranian
king having two snake like tumours on his shoulders.
The takkas were snake worshippers and they founded Taxila
the world known ancient centre of art and learning.
The ancient Taxila, now in ruins, lies on the western
slopes of the Margallas while Islamabad the modern capital
of Pakistan is located on the eastern slopes of the
Margallas. In the ancient days Texila was the capital
of the powerful Buddhist empire and attracted monks
and missionaries, traders and various parts of the world.
But then time and tide of natural forces knocked out
Taxila and it remained buried under dust for several
centuries. It was rediscovered just about a few decades
ago during 1912-1920.
Along with the ancient Taxila a new Taxila is now coming
up fast and that is the industrial Taxila. Today it
can supply even the cement and sugar manufacturing plants
as well as very heavy type of arms and ammunition including
tanks. It is also known for eye operations and handicrafts.
Islamabad, through a city in the making , also attracts
important personalities including Presidents and Prime
Ministers almost from all parts of the world. And there
is no doubt that the development of Islamabad will revive
our centuries old historical and culture links with
Afghanistan, Iran, Turky, the newly independent states
of the Centeral Asia and the Mid. East as well. Communication
links, highways and railways are being planned and development
work may begin very soon.
features of the Federal Territory exhibit a richness
and variety which is continental in dimension. There
are mighty mountains, verdant valleys, pleasant plateaus,
fragrant forests, fertile fields, treacherous torrents
and pretty plains. The area offers such a variety of
topography which the physical forces could produce during
the course of ages.
Territory is dissected by eight rivers and several streams.
Names of the major rivers are, the Soan , the Harro,
the Ling, the Sarin, the Ghamlan, and the Tamrah etc.
The Tamrah and the Harro, after their merger, were so
force-ful that they were once known as the tiger of
the past few years many beautiful man-made lakes have
been added to the landscape of the area. There is Tarbella
on the one side and Mangla on the other. In between
and around the city there are the Simly, the Khanpur,
the Missriot, the Tanaza, and the Rawal lake. All of
them have their own charms and attractions.
these gifts of nature the area occupies a unique position
in the history of civilizations. It was here, in was
there, in this region, when man struggled against the
strong and brutal forces of nature for his existence
in the Soan valley during the Interglacial ages. The
stone implements recovered from some of the terraces
cut by the river Soan in the material deposited by the
melting ice-field during interglacial phases provide
a significant proof about the struggle for human survival
which was staged here as far back as about half a million
Peshawar is one the oldest living cities
of Asia. It is located at the mouth of the famous Khyber
Pass where history is hanging on even today. It has
been attracting adventures and empire builders, saints
and spies, soldiers and smugglers, merchants and mercenaries,
monks and missionaries, mischief and moneychangers,
crooks and conspirators alike since times immemorial.
The very name North West Frontier, evokes a feeling
of great adventure and exploration. Far from ordinary
paths of other regions of Pakistan, it is a wild and
rugged country of tremendous political and geographical
importance. And Peshawar is much more than a city. It
is, in fact, an exciting personal adventure.
at the mouth of the historic Khyber Pass, which links
Pakistan with Afghanistan and the Central Asia beyond,
Peshawar, thus, became a crucible of cultures. During
its long span of history it was subjugated by Persians,
conquered by Greeks, build by Buddhists, Sacked by Scythians,
destroyed by Huns, rebuilt by Brahmins, invaded by Ghaznavides,
captured by Mughals, over run by Sikhs and annexed by
British in succession. Any other city with such a chequered
history would have been vanished from the face of earth
but Peshawar has emerged enriched in colour and tradition
from the endless turmoil. It still retains indelible
marks of the Greeks, the Buddhists, the Persians and
the Afghans. Trail of the Invanders, however, has not
yet vanished though their modus operandi and their names
roads, which now leads out of Peshawar, are among the
city's most interesting charm. To the west is the ancient
highway to central Asia which passes through the modern
cantonment, along the Islamia College and the newly
developed Peshawar University, and several other important
institutions. Right on this road is the new planed town
known as Hayatabad and there after is the famous Afghan
Refugees Camp at Nasir Gharhi where millions of the
Afghanis took refuge because of the Russians Bombarments.
And beyond that just about six kilometers is the Bab-I-
Khyber and the road enters the historic Khyber Pass.
To the south the road climbs into the Kohat Pass through
Darra where the famous gun factories are located. The
road goes further upto Bannu, Tank, Dera Islamil Khan
and Balochistan. To the north lies the Malakand Pass
and beyond right through the most beautiful valleys
of Pakistan, that is, Swat Dir and Chitral. And to the
east is the Grand Trunk Road, which runs through Naushera
to Attock and then right through the heart of Pakistan
up to the great seaport at Karachi.